Tiglath-pileser III was an Assyrian king during the neo-Assyrian period (745-727) who took control over the empire after it had suffered a period of decline for a few decades which saw much fewer campaigns in Syria-Palestine. Tiglath-Pileser III, however, reconsolidated the empire and conducted more campaigns to the west, continuing the early Assyrian policy of subjugating Syrian-Palestinian states. During Tiglath-pileser’s reign, it was the threat of his coming that prompted Aram (Rezin) and Israel (Pekah) to attempt an alliance of kingdoms to check their advance as had been done successfully in the past. Judah’s (Ahaz) refusal to participate triggered the Syro-Ephraimite war which ultimatel triggered Judah to pay submit as a vassal to Tiglath-pileser III for relief. Tiglath-Pileser is well known for his conquest of the Transjordan and Galilee region that resulted in a kingdom of Israel confined to the Ephraimite hill country. Tiglath is often referred to an in the Bible as Pul, which has since been confirmed as an ancient nickname for the ruler. Tiglath-Pileser claims to have deposed and exiled Pekah and installed Hoshea in his place, though the Bible claims that Hoshea killed Pekah. Tiglaht-Pileser’s inscriptions, like most Assyrian inscriptions, not only give us alternative narratives for biblical events but provide relatively secure chronological anchors for these events.


Coogan, Old Testament History of Israel 5: Assyrian Period, The Dictionary of the Old Testament Historical Books